This page assumes that the reader:

  • is working on a Linux machine, a macOS or a Windows machine with OpenSSH installed (default on recent Windows 10+ versions)

  • check in the terminal with ssh -V that you indeed have OpenSSH available

  • has an account on the server of interest

This page is adapted from the very nice documentation written by our colleagues at Aalto University (Finland):

What is SSH

SSH is an abbreviation for secure shell protocol. It is a protocol to communicate data between two computers over an encrypted connection. When you log into one of the clusters with ssh and read and edit files and type commands or copy files using rsync, then data is transmitted via this encrypted connection (see also our guide about File transfer).

Connecting to a server

When you type ssh, then myusername is your username on the remote server and is the server/cluster you are connecting to.

If myusername is the same on your computer and the remote server, you can leave it out:

$ ssh

Jumping through login nodes

When already logged in, you can easily jump from one login node to another by typing ssh login-X (for Fram, Saga and Betzy) or ssh loginX (for NIRD). Please, replace “X” with the number of the login node you want to access.

Also, the same is valid for when we want to access a specific compute node we are running our jobs. However, it is only possible to access compute nodes that you currently have jobs running.

Further below we will show how we can configure SSH so that we don’t have to type the same lengthy command every time

First-time login

When you ssh to a remote server for the very first time, you will be prompted to affirm that the remote server is indeed the one you expected to connect to:

The authenticity of host ' (2001:700:4a01:10::37)' can't be established.
ED25519 key fingerprint is SHA256:ryqAxpKDjNLLa5VeUPclQRaZBOIjd2HFgufUEnn4Jrw.
This key is not known by any other names.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])?

This question is to prevent some other server impersonating the remote resource and subsequently impersonating you to the real resource. This is not very likely but it is possible, therefore it’s a good idea to double check the fingerprint and compare it with published Key fingerprints of our systems.

If the fingerprint matches, you can confirm by typing yes and press Enter. Note that the trailing “.” is not part of the fingerprint.


If the fingerprints do not match, please contact us immediately.

Configuring SSH for less typing

Remembering the full settings list for the server you are working on each time you log in can be tedious: the username is the same every time, the server is the same every time, … There is a better way!

A configuration file allows you to store your preferred settings and map them to much simpler login commands.

Create or edit (if it already exists) the file ~/.ssh/config. Here is an example entry for one of our clusters:

Host saga
    User myusername

Now instead of:

$ ssh

I can type:

$ ssh saga

Also rsync and scp and any other tool that uses ssh under the hood will understand these shortcuts. There is a lot more that can be configured. Search the web for more examples if you are interested.

Using SSH keys instead of passwords

It’s boring to type the password every time, especially if you regularly have multiple sessions open simultaneously (there exist also other tools to help with that). The tedium of typing it 20-50 times each day could motivate some to make the password very short or very memorable, thus reducing security. See also the relevant XKCD comic.

There is a better way: using SSH key pairs. This is not only less tedious (you will only have to type a passphrase typically once per day), but also more secure (we will explain why).

An SSH key pair consists of a private key (which you never share with anybody) and a public key (which you can share with others without problems). Others can then encrypt messages to you using the public key, and you can decrypt them using your private key. Others can only encrypt. Only you can decrypt.

The private key is a file on your computer. Also the public key is a different file on your computer. Anybody who has access to your private key can read data between you and remote servers and impersonate you to the remote servers.

One way to visualize this is to image the public key to be a box into which somebody can put a secret message. Anybody can put something into a box and close the box and send the box to you, but only you have the key to open it (private key).

To make sure that your private key (file) does not fall into the wrong hands, it is custom and recommended to encrypt it with a passphrase. Having the private key “encrypted” with an empty passphrase is possible, but it is the equivalent of leaving your house key under the door mat or the equivalent of having a bank card without any pin.

Why are SSH key pairs more secure than using a password? There is still the passphrase to unlock the private key, so why is this easier and better? We will show later how it is easier, but it is more secure since the passphrase is never communicated to the remote server: it stays on your computer. When the remote server is authenticating you, it encrypts a large number and sends it encrypted to you and asks you to decrypt it and send the decrypted number back and then compares the two. If they match, the remote server knows that you are you and from there on can trust you for the duration of the session. No password or passphrase needs to leave your computer over the network.

Generating a new SSH key pair

While there are many options for the key generation program ssh-keygen, here are the main ones:

  • -t: The encryption type used to make the unique key pair.

  • -b: The number of key bits.

  • -f: Filename of key.

  • -C: Comment on what the key is for.

  • -a: Number of key derivation function rounds. Default is 16. The higher, the longer it takes to verify the passphrase but also the better protection against brute-force password cracking.

We recommend the following command to create a key pair:

$ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -a 100

After running this command in the terminal, you will be prompted to enter a passphrase. Make sure to enter a passphrase to encrypt the key! A private key with an empty passphrase can be used by anybody who gets access to your private key file. Never share it with anybody!

Upon confirming the password, you will be presented with the key fingerprint as both a SHA256 hex string and as randomart image. Your new key-pair should be found in the hidden ~/.ssh directory. If you ran the command above, you will find there id_ed25519 (private key, never share it) and (public key, no problem to share).

Copy public key to server

In order to use your key pair to log in to the remote server, you first need to securely copy the desired public key to the machine with ssh-copy-id. The script will also add the key to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file on the server. You will be prompted to enter your password (not the passphrase associated with the private key) to initiate the secure copy of the file.

To copy and install the public key to the server, for example Saga, we use:

$ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_sigma2

This command creates the directory ~/.ssh on the target machine ( in the example above) if it did not exist yet. When created by OpenSSH (e.g. through ssh-copy-id), the directory gets the required strict permissions 0700, which may be different from the shell’s file-creation mask returned by umask -S. You can check the permissions by running ls -ld ~/.ssh on Saga, and change the permissions to 0700 with the command chmod 0700 ~/.ssh.

Once the public key has been copied to the remote server, you can log in using the SSH key pair. Try it. It should now ask you for your passphrase and not for the password.

This approach works not only for our clusters but also for services like GitHub or GitLab. But let’s focus here on clusters.

Help! It still asks for a password!

In this case, debug with:

$ ssh -v

Instead of -v you can also try -vv or -vvv for more verbose output. Study the output and try to figure out what goes wrong. Does it try the key pair you created?

How many key pairs should I create?

We recommend creating key pair per hardware device. Not a key pair per remote server.

In other words, if you have a laptop and a desktop and want to authenticate to 4 different servers, create a key pair on the laptop and another one on the desktop, and upload both public keys to all 4 remote servers.

The motivation to have one key pair per hardware device is that if you lose your hardware device (e.g. laptop) or it gets stolen, you know which key to revoke access from.

Using the OpenSSH authentication agent

Further up we motivated that we don’t want to type the password every time many times a day. Now we instead need to type the private key passphrase every time, so it feels like this was not a win. But again there is a better way: To avoid having to type the decryption passphrase, the private key needs to be added to the ssh-agent with the command:

On Linux and Windows:

$ ssh-add

On Windows, remember to have the service “OpenSSH Authentication Agent” enabled and starting automatically.

On macOS, use this instead:

$ ssh-add --apple-use-keychain

If you are unsure whether the ssh-agent process is running on your machine, ps -C ssh-agent will tell you if there is. To start a new agent, use:

$ eval $(ssh-agent)

Once the password is added, you can ssh into the remote server as normal but will immediately be connected without any further prompts.

In other words, we use ssh-add typically once per day but then can ssh and rsync as often as we like without re-authenticating.

SSH client on Windows

In Windows 10 and newer you can now get a fully functional Linux terminal by installing WSL.

Yet another alternative is to use the Windows SSH Client directly.

X11 forwarding

X11 forwarding is a method to send the graphical screen output from the remote server to your local computer.

X11 forwarding should be used with caution due to security implications. Please note that if someone can read your X authorization database, that person would be able to access the local X11 display through the forwarded connection. By default, your X authority database is stored in the ~/.Xauthority file. This file contains records with authorization information used in connecting to the X server.

We suggest switching it on only when needed, with the use of options (-X or -Y) passed to the ssh command. Whenever possible, use -X option to mark remote X11 clients untrusted.

In some cases -X will fail to work and either the use of -Y option or setting ForwardX11Trusted in your SSH configuration file to “yes” is required. In this case remote X11 clients will have full access to the original X11 display.

Alternatively, if X11 forwarding is always needed, you can configure it on a per-host basis in your .ssh/config file:

# global settings
ForwardX11        no               # disable X11 forwarding
ForwardX11Trusted no               # do not trust remote X11 clients

# per-host based settings, example for Fram
Host fram                            # alias, you may run "ssh fram" only
    HostName          # actual hostname for Fram
    User my_username                 # replace with your username on Fram
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa_fram  # pointer to your private SSH key
    ForwardX11          yes          # enable X11 forwarding
    ForwardX11Trusted   no           # do not trust remote X11 clients


SSHFS allows you to mount a remote file system using SFTP.

If you wish to use SSHFS, please note that,, and addresses for other clusters are round-robin entries. This means that every time you log in, you might end up on a different actual login node (e.g. or This is done to balance load between login nodes.

When you use sshfs, you should always specify one of the actual login nodes, not the “front-ends”, otherwise you risk getting your IP address blacklisted, since your session is authenticated against only one actual login node and not the other login nodes.

Compressing data for poor connections

In case of poor connection to the server, likely from a very remote area and usually noticeable with X11 forwarding enabled, you may request data compression by using the -C option.

Please note that the compression uses the CPU to compress and decompress all data. If you are on a fast network, then this option will have a negative impact on your bandwidth.

SSH over breaking connections

If you experience intermittent connectivity when on Wi-Fi, cellular, and long-distance links and get frustrated with SSH losing connection and you having to open a new terminal every time, have a look at Mosh (mobile shell).

Mosh is in many instances a drop-in replacement for ssh (and actually utilizes ssh under the hood for establishing a connection). It is recommended to use Mosh if you connect from a laptop and want to keep the connection when roaming on Wi-Fi or putting the laptop to sleep.

Common SSH errors


The SSH connection was working fine until one day the following message appears:

Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the ED25519 key sent by the remote host is
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending ECDSA key in /home/username/.ssh/known_hosts:13
  remove with:
  ssh-keygen -f "/home/username/.ssh/known_hosts" -R
ED25519 host key for has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.

It may be frightening at first but, generally, it just means the SSH Keys from the server have changed and this is common after a system upgrade (so, take a look at our OpsLog page to check if that was the case:

The fix is already in the message itself and, in this example, we just have to locate the file known_hosts inside /home/username/.ssh/ and delete line 13.


  • The number at the end indicates where the problem lies.

  • The path will be different according to the operating system you are running. Also, on Linux, having a folder starting with . means it is a hidden folder.

Also, if you are familiar with Linux terminal, running the suggested command also has the same effect: ssh-keygen -f "/home/username/.ssh/known_hosts" -R

After following the steps above, try to log in again and accept the new fingerprint (if you want to make sure it is the correct one, check this page).